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Kant's Moral Philosophy

||Just as the first Critique set out critically the synthetic a priori principles of theoretical reason, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785) set out critically the synthetic a priori principles of practical reason. This is a brief and eloquent presentation of Kant's moral system.  In morals, Kant's starting point is that the...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Fichte

||Napoleon's conquest of most of Europe can be compared with Alexander's conquests of much of Asia and parts of Africa. The spectacular military achievements were short-lived, but their cultural consequences were felt long after. After Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo, tired monarchies were restored throughout the continent; but their tenure was precarious, and...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Hegel

||One of those most indebted to, but also most critical of, Fichte was G. W. F. Hegel, by far the most influential of the German Idealists. Born in 1770, Hegel studied theology at the University of Tübingen, and taught at Jena until the University was closed down by the French invasion. In 1807 he...

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Marx and the Young Hegelians

||Hegel's importance in the history of philosophy derives not so much from the content of his writing as from the enormous influence he exercised on thinkers who followed him. Of all those whom he influenced, the one who in his turn was most influential was Karl Marx, who described his own philosophical vocation as...

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CAPITALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS - MARX

||Marx developed these ideas in many later writings, culminating in his great Capital, written in London in the final period of his life, when he had been forced to leave France in the aftermath of the revolution of 1848. In that work he explained in detail how the course of history was dictated by...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Jeremy Bentham

||Britain survived the Napoleonic era without invasion and without revolution. Government remained in the hands of a privileged group, and in times of national crisis under Prime Ministers such as the younger Pitt and Lord Liverpool, who were highly autocratic; there was a long way yet to go before the country became a modern...

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The Utilitarianism of J. S. Mill

||Mill softened down Bentham's utilitarianism in several ways. Critics had objected that to suppose that life has no higher end than pleasure was a doctrine worthy only of swine. Mill responded by making a distinction between the quality of pleasures. ‘Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who...

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MiLL's LoGic

||Apart from On Liberty Mill's best known work is his essay on The Subjection of Women, written in collaboration with his wife Harriet Taylor. But Mill's reputation as a philosopher does not depend on his moral and political writings alone. He was highly learned and very industrious; he began learning Greek at the age...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Schopenhauer

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788-1860) Philosophe allemand. A la mort de son père, il suit sa mère, écrivain, à Weimar et fait la connaissance de Goethe, Wieland et des frères Schlegel. Après des études à Göttingen puis à Berlin, où il suit les séminaires de Fichte, il publie en 1819 son ouvrage principal, le Monde comme volonté et comme représentation.  A l'instar de...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: KIERKEGAARD

||In the same decade as the second edition of The World as Will and Idea appeared, the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard put forward a philosophy which in its practical aspect had much in common with Schopenhauer, but which rests on a totally different metaphysical foundation. Instead of being enunciated as a system in a...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: NIETZSCHE

||In the nineteenth century, all that Kierkegaard stood for was bombastically rejected by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900). While for Kierkegaard aesthetic enjoyment was the lowest form of individual existence and Christian self-denial the highest, Nietzsche regarded Christianity as the lowest debasement of the human ideal which finds its highest expression in...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Charles Darwin

||In his funeral oration on Karl Marx, Engels described the materialist conception of history as a scientific breakthrough comparable with Darwin’s discovery of evolution by natural selection. Unlike Marx’s theory, Darwin’s discovery was a genuine scientific advance, and the detailed discussion of it belongs to the history of science. But it casts a ...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: John Henry Newman

||If the nineteenth century set the stage for the fiercest ever battle between science and religion, it was also spanned by the lifetime of a thinker who made a greater effort than any other to show that not just belief in God, but the acceptance of a religious creed, was a completely rational activity:...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Sigmund Freud

||Freud was born into an Austrian Jewish family in 1856 and spent almost all of his life in Vienna. He trained as a doctor and went into medical practice in 1886. In 1895 he published a work on hysteria which presented a novel analysis of mental illness. Shortly afterwards he gave up normal medicine and...

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FREGE's LoGic

||The Tractatus quickly became famous. Oddly enough, though it was itself highly metaphysical, as well as austerely logical, its most enthusiastic admirers were the anti-metaphysical positivists of the Vienna Circle. This group, which grew up round Moritz Schlick after his appointment as Professor of the Philosophy of Science in Vienna in 1922, consisted of...

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FREGE'S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC

||t will be seen that Frege's philosophy of mathematics is closely linked to his understanding of several key terms of logic and of philosophy; and indeed in the Begriffschrift and the Grundlagen Frege not only founded modern logic, but also founded the modern philosophical discipline of philosophy of logic. He did so by making...

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RUSSELL'S PARADOX

||Russell was born in 1872, the grandson of the Prime Minister Lord John Russell, and godson of John Stuart Mill. At Trinity College, Cambridge, he accepted for a while a British version of Hegelian idealism. Later, in conjunction with his friend G. E. Moore, he abandoned idealism for an extreme realist philosophy which included...

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RUSSELL'S THEORY OF DESCRIPTIONS

||  In his realist period, when he wrote The Principles of Mathematics, Russell had believed that in order to save the objectivity of concepts and judgements it was necessary to accept the existence of Platonic ideas and of propositions which subsisted independently of their expression in sentences. Like Frege, he accepted that concepts were...

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LOGICAL ANALYSIS - RUSSELL

||In On Denoting and later papers Russell constantly speaks of the activity of the philosopher as being one of analysis. By analysis he means a technique of substituting a logically clear form of words for another form of words which was in some way logically misleading. His theory of descriptions was for long a...

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TRACTATUS LOGICO-PHILOSOPHICUS - Ludwig Wittgenstein

||Ludwig Wittgenstein was the grandson of a Jewish land-agent and the son of a steel millionaire who had nine children by a Catholic wife, and baptized all of them into the Catholic faith. Born in Vienna in 1889, he attended the Realschule in Linz, where he was a contemporary of Adolf Hitler. At school...

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LOGICAL POSITIVISM

positivisme Orientation philosophique qui se fonde uniquement sur des faits expérimentés, refusant toute métaphysique. Les premiers représentants du positivisme furent David Hume, Jean d'Alembert et Turgot ; sa première systématisation fut réalisée par Auguste Comte. Par sa vision du monde et ses méthodes, le positivisme est très proche des sciences naturelles. Le néopositivisme, représenté notamment par Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein...

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Peut on considérer que tout n'est qu'illusion ?

||Dans la vie courante, l'illusion est toujours décriée : on reproche à autrui de se faire des illusions, ou de se raccrocher à des illusions. Les philosophes eux même sont en proie à ce grand questionnement : est si tout n'était qu'illusions ? Même s'il est vrai que toute personnes se pose au moins...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Abravanel, Judah ben Isaac ?

|| Judah ben Isaac Abravanel was born in Lisbon. After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, Leone, as he was known, and his family migrated to Naples, but fled two years later following the French invasion. After brief residences in various Italian cities, Leone returned to Naples where he served as...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Absolute

Est absolu ce qui est sans restriction, donc sans limite, sans condition, sans lien. Rien ne borne un pouvoir absolu, ne fléchit une autorité absolue. Rien n'écarte une nécessité absolue. Rien ne supprime une contingence absolue. Rien ne précède un commencement absolu. Rien n'anticipe sur un point de départ absolu. Rien ne gouverne un principe absolu. Rien ne...

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Absolutism

|| The term 'absolutism' describes a form of government in which the authority of the ruler is subject to no theoretical or legal constraints. In the language of Roman law - which played a central role in all theories of absolutism - the ruler was legibus solutus, or 'unfettered legislator'. Absolutism is generally, although not...

3 pages - 1,80 €

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